Human African trypanosomiasis, also known as sleeping sickness, is a devastating disease caused by the parasite Trypanosoma brucei that is transmitted by tsetse flies in sub-Saharan Africa. The disease affects both humans and animals, and if left untreated, can be fatal.

Symptoms of sleeping sickness include fever, headaches, joint pains, and itching. In the later stages, the disease affects the central nervous system and causes disruptions in sleep, leading to the characteristic sleep disturbances that give the disease its name. Without treatment, sleeping sickness can ultimately result in coma and death.

Despite progress in recent years, Human African trypanosomiasis remains a major public health challenge in many parts of sub-Saharan African, particularly for rural communities where access to healthcare is limited. Prevention and control of the disease relies on a combination of interventions, including surveillance and early detection, insecticide-treated bed nets, and chemotherapy.

Efforts to develop new drugs and control measures are ongoing, and continued investment in research and development is critical to eliminate sleeping sickness as a public health threat.